Two-way air-to-ground communication is the basic means by which air traffic service (ATS) units communicate with aircraft crews, and those in airborne vehicles communicate with each other. More than 135 radio channels are used by UkSATSE ATS units within very high frequency range (VHF). These radio channels are provided by transmitters, receivers and radio stations. In order to improve quality and to extend the range of air-to-ground communication, more than 500 items of the modern radio equipment with remote control and monitoring were installed during 2011-2013.
Additionally, 100 hundred items are planned to be installed during 2014-2015. We started the preparation to the distribution of frequency channels with 8,33 kHz step in Ukraine.
In 2014 5 transmitting and receiving centers were established to provide communication within VHF range at the airspace of Simferopol ACC.
All working positions are provided with aeronautical ground-to-ground communication equipment, which is used for coordination of ATS units and airspace users.
For the automated coordination between ATM centers, data exchange channels with the use of the OLDI protocol have been established.
In order to adjust AFTN channels to digital format 40 telecommunication equipment sets were implemented at UkSATSE units.
UkSATSE Multi-service telecommunications network
We implemented a backbone telecommunications network – an advanced, highly productive, reliable and secure system of transportation of the maximum possible range of information flows, needed for provision of air navigation services in the airspace of Ukraine in full compliance with modern international requirements.
Equipment of the backbone telecommunications network is installed at all regional branches of UkSATSE, thus technologically consolidating all units of the enterprise into common IP-environment of air navigation. The network enables effective exchange of aeronaurical data and improves coordination between ATC centres. Within this network such modern technologies and systems as VOIP (Voice over IP Protocol), Aeronautical Message Handling System (AMHS), Flight Message Transfer Protocol (FMTP) and UkSATSE Surveillance Data Network (USENET) are created.
According to the European centralized services initiative, the Pan-European Network Services (PENS) are created. We plan to integrate the backbone telecommunications network into PENS, which in future will provide network access to aeronautical data of ANSPs of the neighboring countries.
Aeronautical fixed telecommunication network (AFTN)
Aeronauical fixed telecommunication network services are an integral part of air navigation services provided by UkSATSE.
The Ukrainian AFTN is a part of the world aeronautical fixed telecommunication network. It provides exchange of ATM messages.
AFTN services are provided by Ukraerozviazok Center and respective units of UkSATSE regional branches and air traffic control service units.
Today according to the Ukrainian air navigation system development strategy, UkSATSE implements new Aeronautical Message Handling System (AMHS).
Implementation of AMHS will allow replacing of outdated and ineffective AFTN with a new message handling system to remove restrictions for ATS messages size and format, to provide safe and fast transmission taking into account the increasing load according to the up-to-date international standards as well as ICAO and EUROCONTROL requirements.
In 2015, UkSATSE plans to install and to put into operation AMHS. According to the implementation plan, the transition from AFTN to AMHS will be carried out during 2016-2017.
VHF omnidirectional radio range (VOR) and UHF distance measuring equipment (DME)
The up-to-date on-ground navigation infrastructure was created, consisting of VHF omnidirectional radio range (VOR) and UHF distance measuring equipment (DME).
The Following are in operation at present:
Instrumental landing systems
- Compatible VOR/DME: Ivano-Frankivsk, Simferopol, Odesa, Dnipropetrovsk, Kharkiv and Kirovograd (6 units);
- Compatible DVOR/DME: Lviv, Donetsk, Soloviivtsi village (3 units);
- DME: Mariupol, Vinnytsia, Kryvyi Rig, Yagotyn, Bakhmach, Stebliv village, Koshany village (7 units).
The ground equipment of landing systems is operated in compliance with the international ILS standard.
The total number of instrumental landing systems (ILS) is 10 units:
Landing System Equipment
- SP-90 (with DME) – 2 units
- SP-80 (M) – 5 units
- SP-75 – 3 units
The total number of landing system equipment units is 24.
Non-directional beacons (NDB)
Total number of en-route NDBs amounts to 25.
Total number of airdrome NDBs amounts to 6.
Automatic direction-finders (ADF)
The total number of automatic direction finders amounts to 55 units.
For en-route surveillance over aircraft in the airspace of Ukraine, 8 en-route radar complexes TRLK-10 are used as a part of “Skala-M” primary radar and “Koren-S” secondary radar; 3 autonomous secondary radars of “Koren-AS” type and 5 monopulse secondary surveillance radars (MSSR) of IRS-20MP/L and SIR-S type.
For surveillance at airdrome control zone (CTR) and terminal control area (TMA), 5 airdrome-and-route radars of ATCR-33S/SIR-S type, and 10 airdrome radars of ASR-85, DRL-7SM, Irtysh and ASR-22/AL types are used.
In addition, Multilateration Surveillance System is used at CTR Boryspil, CTR Kyiv/Zhuliany and airdrome traffic zone at Boryspil airport.
Weather Surveillance Radar
In order to provide efficient round the clock surveillance over specific weather phenomena in the airspace of Ukraine three Doppler weather radars systems METEOR 635C at the aerodromes of Lviv and Kharkiv, and a mobile Doppler weather radars system METEOR 50DX at the airport of Donetsk were put into operation.
Multilateration Surveillance System (MLAT)
With implementation of multilateration surveillance system (MLAT) for airdrome traffic zone at Boryspil airport in 2012 a new page in the UkSATSE history of surveillance systems development was opened. New technologies of co-operative surveillance laid the basis for creation of the latest systems of air traffic control.
Automated Systems of Air Traffic Control
Automated systems of air traffic control are installed in Kyiv, Lviv, Dnipropetrovsk, Odesa, and Simferopol area control centers (ACC), as well as in Kharkiv and Donetsk airdrome control centres.
In 2013 modernization of the automated ATC systems of Dnipropetrvsk ACC, Donetsk and Kharkiv airdrome control centres was completed.
As a result of modernization hardware and software decisions of the automated ATC system in Dnipropetrovsk ACC and Kharkiv and Donetsk airdrome control centres were unified to correspond to the automated ATC system “AIRCON-2100” architecture.
The modernization was aimed at improvement of the automated ATC system performance at the Eastern region of Ukraine.
In order to reach the goal, the automated ATC systems at Dnipropetrovsk ACC, Kharkiv and Donetsk airdrome control centres were built according to the same architecture pattern, and have similar hard- and software.
The main advantages of this modernization are:
- Optimization of the automated ATC systems operation due to unified equipment and spare parts, same version of operation system and software
- Creating conditions for the most effective workforce planning and management within the region, by means of creation domain knowledge base, grounding on collective experience, gained due to similar automated ATC system operation
- Reaching maximum efficiency from implementing telecommunications technologies for ATC centres cooperation in the region
- Creation of optimal conditions for implementation of the reorganization of Ukrainian Air traffic control centres, namely for the neighbouring centres back-up and sharing of their facilities
In 2015 it is also planned to put into operation the automated ATC system “Roksolana” in the new ATC centre of Lviv regional branch.