Air Traffic Control Systems
UkSATSE uses state-of-the-art Air Traffic Control Systems (ATC Systems) of domestic and foreign manufacture. In order to meet the current operational requirements for the airspace use, the functionality of the ATÑ Systems is permanently upgraded and extended.
ATC Systems are located at Kyiv, Lviv, Dnipropetrovsk and Odesa Area Control Centres (ACCs), as well as at Kharkiv Aerodrome Control Centre.
The architecture of the future ATC Systems is expected to support the concept of a “Virtual ATM Centre”, while the required functionality will be available at any workplace linked to a nationwide or European Air Navigation Network.
The Aeronautical Telecommunication Service is designed for:
- - the exchange of messages between ATS units and aircraft (a/c) throughout the flight;
- - interaction of ATS Units during the Ukrainian airspace use planning and air traffic services provision;
- - interaction between the units of CA enterprises, organizations and institutions during the transmission (reception) of administrative and operational information;
- - automated data exchange with a/c and ground users providing flights;
- - transmission (reception) of messages containing operational meteorological information;
- - interaction with units of the relevant bodies of the Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Emergencies, Ministry of Internal Affairs and other central executive authorities.
The two-way air-to-ground radio communication is the basic means of communication between Air Traffic Service (ATS) units and a/c crews, and between a/c crews in flight. UkSATSE uses radio channels within very high frequency range (VHF) for all ATS units. Works are in progress to introduce more advanced equipment supporting VoIP technologies and frequency channel allocation with a step of 8.33 kHz.
Aeronautical ground telecommunication is the basic means of ensuring the interaction of the ATS units of UkSATSE in the process of operating activities. Wire telecommunication, radio communication, radio relay communication and satellite telecommunication facilities are used to provide aeronautical ground telecommunication.
For the provision of ground-to-ground telecommunications Voice Communication Switching Systems (VCSS) of new generation and digital data transmission systems have been introduced.
UkSATSE has implemented a Backbone Telecommunications Network (BTN) – an advanced, highly productive, reliable and secure system of transportation of the maximum possible range of information flows required for provision of air navigation services in the Ukrainian airspace in full compliance with modern international requirements.
The BTN equipment is installed at all UkSATSE regional branches technologically consolidating all UkSATSE branches into common IP-environment of air navigation. The network allows for the efficient exchange of aeronautical data and improves coordination between ATC centres. This network also enables implementation of such modern technologies and systems as VoIP (Voice over IP Protocol), Aeronautical Message Handling System (AMHS), Flight Message Transfer Protocol (FMTP), Surveillance Data Network (USENET), etc.
Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Network (AFTN)
Aeronautical fixed telecommunication network services are an integral part of air navigation services provided by UkSATSE.
Today, under the strategy of the Ukrainian air navigation system development, UkSATSE is implementing a new Aeronautical Message Handling System (AMHS).
Implementation of AMHS will allow replacing outdated and ineffective AFTN (Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Network) with a new message handling system, removing restrictions for ATS messages size and format and providing their safe and fast transmission in view of the growing volume of the exchanged data according to the up-to-date international standards and requirements of ICAO and EUROCONTROL.
Navigation systems for the support of traditional navigation (NDB, VOR/DME and DME) create a navigation field in the route and terminal airspace as well as during landing procedures.
The characteristics of the navigation facilities meet the requirements of the Standards and Recommended Practices of the International Civil Aviation Organization contained in Volume I of Annex 10 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation and the national certification requirements for ground CNS facilities in civil aviation.
Flight inspections are carried out to the extent and at intervals defined by national regulatory documents.
A list of radio navigation aids used en-route in the Ukrainian airspace is provided in AIP of Ukraine (section ENR 4.1).
The equipment used in the terminal airspace and at the approach for each aerodrome is provided in in the relevant section (AD-2, AD-3) of AIP of Ukraine.
The development of UkSATSE navigation infrastructure for providing the performance-based navigation (PBN) in Ukraine is based on the following principles:
- - recognition of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) as the primary navigation facility at the aviation authority level and the establishment of a GNSS signal monitoring system for the purposes described in ICAO Doc 9849;
- - use of several GNSS satellite constellations;
- - use of ground navigation infrastructure as a backup in case of GNSS systems failure;
- - use of DME as the basis of ground-based navigation infrastructure;
- - use of GNSS augmentation systems, in particular, including the Ukrainian territory in the official coverage of EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service).
The key elements of the system of surveillance over the en-route controlled airspace, aerodrome control zone and terminal control area are the Mode S Monopulse Secondary Radars and Primary Surveillance Radars (PSR).
In order to provide efficient round-the-clock surveillance of specific weather phenomena in the Ukrainian airspace, three Doppler weather radar systems are operated.
The main focus of the surveillance infrastructure development is the introduction of cooperative surveillance systems (Mode S (EHS) MSSR, ADS-B, MLAT/WAM) supplemented when required with surveillance noncooperative systems, such as Surface Movement Radars (SMR) and PSR. It is planned to begin the transition to the use of ADS-B systems to provide surveillance in the controlled airspace. The scale and timeframe for such a transition will be conditioned by the monitoring results of the introduction of EU Implementing Rules for interoperability of surveillance systems.